online education

On the fundamentals of studying science

“But you have to learn to live all your life, and what will surprise you even more, you have to learn to die all your life. »


Always the freedom to learn

My partner is taking a drawing class and is producing a work full of color and energy that comes from her universe. Her fine arts teacher gives her complete freedom to move and be inspired where she sees fit to create absolutely how she desires. How often do we have such permits? What if art teachers had secrets few educators master?


According to the Le Robert dictionary, “pedagogy” is a word of Greek origin, traced back to 1495. The word is very successful, since it is possible to add adjectives. The pedagogies, since we must decide to name them in the plural, would be: active, technological, socialized, traditional, negative, libertarian, school, soviet, project, active, group, socioconstructivist, by goals, archetypal, programmed , documentaries, explicit, institutional, differentiated, through problem solving, mental management, spirals, cooperatives, challenges, decision making, outside, internet.

When a discipline is so diverse in its forms and styles, we can hypothesize that there are more educators than practices that emphasize one or more dimensions of the learning situation. Some educators have also left their names to denote their practices, such as Montessori or Steiner-Waldorf, to name just two famous examples. There are hardly any learners who have left their names to the pedagogies, which speaks for a tropism of pedagogy as a teaching science.


The composition of the word andragogy combines andros (the man) and agogos (the leader). It took more than 6 centuries to compose this neologism that emphasizes the specifics of adult education. We owe this tenure to the German educator Alexander Kapp. Then it’s picked up or reinvented by Malcolm Knowless in the 70’s to support a science of adult education.

Characteristic of adulthood, andragogy obeys the principles of involving the learner in their own learning, once the expression of the goal, the role of experience and especially the integration of the cycle of experiments – error – the need to have an immediate impact on one’s reality , the focus on concrete problems and their acquisition processes instead of on abstract content.

If andragogy opens us to the peculiarities of the adult world, it is important to remember that they rarely walk alone and are, above all, social beings who learn from each other, through imitation, modeling or a variety of interactions. It is therefore logical to focus on what happens in groups between people.


Pairagogy refers to specific pedagogical learning situations between peers. The peer sees himself as someone who carries out activities similar to his own. If the practice is old, the conceptualization would be shaped by the suggestions in a 1982 guide by Rheingold. Then researched in Europe with sustained effort to understand learning communities or ways of learning together.

Learning among peers requires co-legitimacy, so that everyone’s words are recognized as capable of delivering something to the other that they do not perceive or understand. The peer, because they are going through a similar situation, can get closer to their own experience, living it from within, a bit like supporters of the same illness can understand each other finely, because they feel the same symptoms, have to face the same difficulties and find the inside to find a little comfort a doctor can’t prescribe.

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If pairagogy ultimately refers to the complements that two learners bring to each other, hetagagogy further examines internal determinants. Heutagogik is understood as the doctrine of self-determined learning. She places herself resolutely on the side of the learner, not as the object of a pedagogical technique alien to him and sometimes incomprehensible, but as the subject of his own experience.

The phrase is therefore related to the notion of learning, which puts the learner at the center of the learning process. Learning is an attitude favorable to learning.

What guides us

Coming back to the syntagma of “what guides us,” we see that we are still and always looking for a force to engage us in our learning. If the pedagogy gives us a glimpse of an educator who holds us by the hand on the path to knowledge, if the andragogic guidance highlights the human experience, both practical and very concrete, and if the pairagogy reminds us of the social dimension of the human fact remembered. Finally, Heutaggie prepares the mind for the forms of learning chosen by individuals themselves. Each of these forms of guidance brings with it its share of practical considerations as to the techniques to be used, the methods to be preferred, the position of the leader, and the principles to be followed.

For my part, I posit that what guides us is part of a larger living flow that crosses us and is made up of a multitude of experiences (our masters, our place as adults, our peers, or our own choices), and that would be it is also necessary to add nature, which we more or less integrate.

To describe this flow, I imagine that it leaves a mark both in our body and in our mind. A thin film that changes to accommodate new experiences. I like to invent the word “experium” in homage to the growth of trees that have the “cambium” (from Latin cambiare for change), that tissue that grows inward and pushes the bark outward. As long as the cambium is alive, the sap circulates and the tree sustains itself and thrives. The same metaphor applies to humans as long as the “experium” takes place, the experience is not in vain, it circulates, is interpreted, produces actionable stories, aggregates into schemata and produces processes of adaptation. Once the experium of certainties freezes, dries up, and no longer plays its role of creating matter to grow from within, the adaptive process weakens.

In addition to the currently highly valued pedagogical/andragogic/pairagogic/heutagogic forms, it seems urgent to me that we orientate ourselves towards living things and not just towards human standards. This guide has yet to be invented. She will probably be able to help us cope with the changes that are on the horizon.



M. Knowles, 1970, “The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy”, Associated Press, New York


Thot cursus – The promising fruit pairing of the co world

Practical Guide to “Pair Gogia” – Christine Vaufrey – Thot Cursus

Bloghoptoys – pedagogy, andragogy, heuragogy what are we talking about?

S.HASE, C.KENYON. transition from andragogy to heutagogy; Impact on VET. January 2001.

LM BLASCHKE, S.HASE. Heutagik and digital media networks: putting students on the path to lifelong learning. Pacific Journal of Technology Advanced Learning. 2019

Kristol, D. (2017). Learning Communities: Learning together. Knowledge, 43, 10-55.

The pedagogy of challengesédagogie%20des%20défis.pdf

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